- 1 What is Trochlear spur?
- 2 What is crossing sign in knee?
- 3 What is Trochlear dysplasia?
- 4 What is a patella alta?
- 5 Why is the Trochlear nerve unique?
- 6 How do you test for patellar instability?
- 7 What is a positive J sign?
- 8 How can I improve my knee cap alignment?
- 9 How do you fix Trochlear dysplasia?
- 10 Do you need surgery for patellofemoral syndrome?
- 11 How do you fix knee dysplasia?
- 12 Does patellar dislocation show up on MRI?
- 13 What causes increased Q angle?
- 14 Where is the Trochlear notch?
What is Trochlear spur?
supratrochlear spur: bony spur at the most proximal portion of the trochlea. double contour sign: significantly smaller medial femoral condyle. trochlear bump: the increased distance between the anterior trochlear groove and extension of the anterior cortex of the distal femur.
What is crossing sign in knee?
The crossing sign is seen on true lateral plain radiographs of the knee when the line of the trochlear groove crosses the anterior border of one of the condyle trochlea. It is a predictor of trochlear dysplasia. Trochlear dysplasia has been linked to recurrent patellar dislocation 1,2,4.
What is Trochlear dysplasia?
Instead of a groove, some patients have a flat or a dome-shaped trochlea. This condition is called trochlear dysplasia. When an individual has a flat or dome-shaped trochlea, the patella loses stability and can track to the outside of the knee as the knee bends.
What is a patella alta?
Patella alta or high-riding patella refers to an abnormally high patella in relation to the femur. The patella sits high on the femur where the groove is very shallow. Here, the sides of the femoral groove provide only a small barrier to keep the high-riding patella in place.
Why is the Trochlear nerve unique?
The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of axons it contains. It has the greatest intracranial length. It is the only cranial nerve that exits from the dorsal (rear) aspect of the brainstem.
How do you test for patellar instability?
The best test to determine whether a patient is having symptoms from a subluxing or dislocating patella, is the lateral patellar apprehension test. It is performed with the knee flexed to 45° over the side of the examining table.
What is a positive J sign?
The J-sign refers to the inverted ‘J’ track the patella takes from extension to early flexion. The J-sign is a clinical finding indicative of patellar maltracking.
How can I improve my knee cap alignment?
Nonsurgical treatment may include rest, regular stretching and strengthening exercises, taping or bracing the knee, using ice, and short-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Quadriceps strengthening is the most commonly prescribed treatment for patellar tracking disorder.
How do you fix Trochlear dysplasia?
They can include a reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament, a tibial tubercle osteotomy, a trochleoplasty, where the distal aspect of the femur is cut and reshaped to create more of a normal groove, a distal femoral osteotomy, and other associated treatments.
Do you need surgery for patellofemoral syndrome?
Surgical treatment for patellofemoral pain is very rarely needed and is done only for severe cases that do not respond to nonsurgical treatment. Surgical treatments may include: Arthroscopy. During arthroscopy, your surgeon inserts a small camera, called an arthroscope, into your knee joint.
How do you fix knee dysplasia?
Trochleoplasty is indicated mainly for high-grade trochlear dysplasia. In the majority of these cases, trochleoplasty is performed in association with other procedures (such as anterior tibial tubercle [ATT] transfer or medial patella-femoral ligament [MPFL] reconstruction).
Does patellar dislocation show up on MRI?
MR imaging can be used to diagnose prior patellar dislocation on the basis of typical injury patterns. In general, deformity or edema of the inferomedial patella and the lateral condyle, in conjunction with MPFL disruption and patellar lateralization, is diagnostic for recent patellar dislocation (5–11,18).
What causes increased Q angle?
Increase in Q angle is associated with: Femoral anteversion. External tibial torsion. Laterally displaced tibial tubercle.
Where is the Trochlear notch?
The upper end of the ulna presents a large C-shaped notch—the semilunar, or trochlear, notch—which articulates with the trochlea of the humerus (upper arm bone) to form the elbow joint.